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Re: [vox-tech] RAID systems
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Re: [vox-tech] RAID systems

--- Bill Broadley <bill@cse.ucdavis.edu> wrote:

> > > Measuring a real world workload in real world conditions.  Short
> > > of that I'd recommend bonnie++ and "PostMark: A New File System
> > > Benchmark"
> > 
> > Right now all I have been doing is cron'ing iostat to give me
> snapshots
> > every few minutes.
> Very reasonable.  Although thats a snapshot.  iostat 60 or iostat 600
> will give you a more complete picture (24/7 totals instead of
> occasional
> snapshots).

Again, thanks for the great tip.

> > Yea, the worst is always what I plan for with these sorts of
> things,
> > but I guess no system is foolproof or failsafe.
> Indeed, but offsite offline backups are a great place to start.

I'll be talking to my boss about this today.

> > The best idea I have of the population of files that will be stored
> is:
> >  random.  I have general statistics, but they can change on even a
> > daily basis.  Most of the storage would be for millions of <64k
> text
> > files, but not always.
> I like to run something like:
> 	http://broadley.org/bill/dirstat.pl
> [root@localhost perl]# time ./dirstat.pl /
> scanning /
> Total directories =    25807
> Total files       =   389283
> Total size        =    98441.5 MB
> Average Directory =       15.1 files and  3906.08 KB
> Maximum Directory =     7522 files //dev
> Average filesize  =      258.95 KB
> real    0m21.077s
> user    0m5.128s
> sys     0m10.775s
> [root@localhost perl]#
> So things to look for:
> * large directories might need application changes for smaller dirs,
>   ext3 htrees, reiserfs or other support for large dirs.
> * average file size (for inode allocation)

Pretty handy little tool there.  

> > > I believe ext3 will allocate additional inodes as needed, no need
> to
> > > preallocate.
> > > 
> > 
> > One of the previous raid systems (scsi hardware raid) that we had
> ran
> > out of inodes (it was formatted ufs and ran in solaris) in the
> first
> > month or two that we used it for production.  I just don't want to
> make
> > the same mistake twice...
> Ugh, indeed, I must have misremember or maybe remembering for the
> wrong
> filesystem.  Never allocate more than one inode per block though,
> they will go to waste.
> > As mentioned before, pretty randomized populations, and there's a
> high
> > degree of variance between projects.  Basically, we are sent huge
> > populations of data, we process the data into different formats,
> and
> > return it.  The input data are mostly correspondance (email, word
> docs,
> > spreadsheets, etc), but that is generally just a rule of thumb... 
> The
> > populations are simply moving targets that vary widely from each
> > project, and that is all that I have to go on... :)
> If you are ever stuck with a lack of inodes you can make a filesystem
> in a 
> file and loop mount it.

Just make sure that you have one free inode to make the file...

> > For some projects, there can be 3 million files where 99% are less
> than
> > 4k in size.  For others there can be 3000 files where all are more
> than
> mkfs.ext3 -T news will make one inode per 4kb block.

Exactly the option I used, I must have forgotten to post that.

Actually, as i recall, it was:

[root@localhost /]# mkfs.ext3 -b 4096 -R stride=16 -T news /dev/md0

> > 128k.  Most fall somewhere in between.  Knowing exact numbers would
> > mean that I could tell the future and know what would be coming in
> the
> > door (which would be cool...).
> Heh.
> > Again, here is my dilemma.  I just chose something that would
> hopefully
> > e "good enough(tm)" to use everyday, and something that would
> handle 30
> > gazillion 2k files (I for-sure know there will be gazillions of
> emails,
> > most of which are less than 2k, what I don't know is the ratio of
> > smaller files to larger files).
> Files smaller than blocksize aren't coalesced afaik, you might need 
> another fs if you need it, on the otherhand you can set 1k or 2k
> blocks.

For some cases, I might think about reducing the block size, but for
now, I am just going to sit with 4k blocks until there is a good reason
to move to a smaller size.  Even before I think of reducing block
sizes,  I might think about trying reiserfs if the performance for
small files isn't great.  I might be building a few more of these boxes
soon, so that is one thing I am still going to try out.  I think I'll
try it out just to get a comparison between the two fs's.

> > I have a triple supply on the drive cabinet and a double supply on
> the
> > box, all fed by UPS.  
> Nice.

Thanks for all the help and advice, Bill.  I humbly bow to your wise
words :) 

--thanks much


> -- 
> Bill Broadley
> Computational Science and Engineering
> UC Davis
> _______________________________________________
> vox-tech mailing list
> vox-tech@lists.lugod.org
> http://lists.lugod.org/mailman/listinfo/vox-tech

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